Annotated Bibliography

1. Bleacher Report. (2013). Bleacher report raises the bar for citizen journalists with new editorial guidelines. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from

This article on Bleacher Report’s website provided a guideline for new editorial standards for writers/bloggers, in order to “enhance credibility.” They have moved away from an instant publish mode—now, all new writers must go through an application process and pass an exclusive standard requirement. Bleacher Report is the leading publisher of original and entertaining sports editorial content. It is the fastest-growing sports digital media property, based on the fastest growing properties in the top 300 Quantcast rankings since August 2009. Since launching in 2008, Bleacher Report has built an audience of more than 8million unique visitors per month to its web site and reaches more than 600,000 email subscribers via its daily newsletters.


2. Brown, C. (2007, Feb 1, 2007). Ex-players dealing with not-so-glamorous health issues. New York Times, pp. D.1

This news article discussed the health issues that are plaguing retired NFL players, such as depression (or other mental health issues, which can be risk factors for suicide), sleep apnea, high cholesterol/blood pressure, diabetes, etc. The underlying theme to this article is that football players have been indoctrinated into an atmosphere of masculinity, which prevents them from speaking up about health issues because they want to preserve that “tough” and heroic image.

3. Bryant, J, and A Raney. Handbook of Sports and Media. London: Routledge, 2006.

This book is a handbook of sport and media. It traces the development of sport media and coverage, which is what I was most interested in learning more about from this handbook. It talks about how sport coverage began and how it changed over time, particularly how media coverage of sport has been shifting throughout the ages—the Agricultural, Industrial, and finally, the Information Age.

4. Center for Study of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. (2013). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Retrieved from

This is the website for the Boston University center that researches CTE. It provides good information about the disease and how it develops, risk factors, relation to concussion, etc. It chronicles the research efforts and findings of a particular group of CTE researchers who are usually interviewed and mentioned/quoted in news articles. Another aspect I am interested in when doing this research is evaluating who the sources in news articles typically are. I want to compare/contrast the use of official and unofficial sources in news stories.

5. Chapman, Cameron. (2009, November 29). The evolution of web design. Retrieved at

This website gave more information about sports content and the history of its online dissemination, particularly about how early versions of sport websites were set up and what kinds of features they contained and did not contain. Reading about these websites helped me understand how to better compare and contrast them with today’s online sport websites.

6. Chin, L., Toshkezi, G., & Cantu, R. (2011). Traumatic encephalopathy related to sports injury. US Neurology7(1), 33-36.

This article shows the evidence between concussions, TBI and CTE and the symptoms of each. There are no treatment options for CTE, so it discusses concussion prevention especially in sports where the injuries can be more common. Sports-related injuries account for 10% of head and spinal cord injuries. Yearly, 1.5 million Americans suffer traumatic brain injury (TBI) without loss of consciousness or need for hospitalization. Football is the sport where players are highest at risk for concussion due to its high impact nature.

7. Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005). Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept. Gender and Society, 19(6), 829-859. doi:10.1177

The topic of this journal article is the concept of masculinity. Masculinity is an important aspect of organized sports among males, because it is how they assert dominance and power. Discussion of gender politics and hegemony is important to my research.


8. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

This is a book about qualitative research and how to do it. Creswell presents five approaches to qualitative research while also exploring the philosophical underpinnings, history and important elements of these five approaches (narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, case study). The author talks about methodology of each, data collection, verification, etc. This was one of the required texts for Dr. Duke’s qualitative research class. I found it to be very helpful so I purchased my own copy.


9. Dwyre, B. (2011, Dec 16, 2011). As concussions take toll, are we taking notice? Los Angeles Times, pp. C.2.

This newspaper article addressed the concussion debate that has been very prevalent in sports, especially recently. The author asserts that as a society we have become numb to the serious nature of concussions in sports and simply accepted it as just a commonplace occurrence. He calls for increased awareness and better treatment of concussions, which can have negative long-term effects for athletes, regardless of their sport.


10. eBizMBA. (2013). Top 15 most popular sports websites. Retrieved 2/2, 2013, from

This website contained a list of the 15 most popular/visited sport websites, which was helpful to me because I could see which sites people go to the most.


11. Edison, Paul. (2010, September 3). The History of Web Design in a Nutshell. Retrieved at

This website gave more information about sports content and the history of its online dissemination, particularly about how early versions of sport websites were set up and what kinds of features they contained and did not contain. Reading about these websites helped me understand how to better compare and contrast them with today’s online sport websites. 

12. Goldstein, R. (2000, 06 29). Larry Kelley, 85, a Yale end who won the Heisman, dies . New York Times. Retrieved from

This article recounted the death of a popular NFL athlete who died by suicide in 2000. It provided risk factors and symptoms that Kelley experienced before his suicide (both short and long term symptoms/risk factors). This helps me better understand what sorts of risk factors and symptoms journalists are connecting with the act of suicide.

13. Gould, M. (2001). Suicide and the media. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences932, 200-224.

This journal article discusses the relationship between the media and suicide, particularly the ways in which the media coverage of a suicide can inspire contagions. The author looks at articles from English language publications to see how the stories talk about suicide. She provides statistics about the effects and gives suggestions on how to minimize harm and risk associated with these stories.

14. Joiner, T. (2007). Why people die by suicide. (1 ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

This book provided information about suicide statistics, reasons people commit suicide (such as external factors and risk factors). The biggest risk factors for suicide include the feeling of being a burden on loved ones; sense of isolation and ability for self-harm. Written by a clinical psychologist, the book examines suicide from various lenses, such as anthropologically, historically, culturally, from an epidemiological and genetic standpoint, etc. This book is the most helpful piece of suicide research I have encountered thus far. He recounts old suicide theories but also introduces and explains his own theory.

15. Maxwell, J. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

This is a handbook for how to do various types of qualitative research. It provides models for research, helps you define your goals for doing the study, discusses conceptual framework, helps you formulate your research questions and methods portion, measure validity and how to present the study when it is done. This is one of the textbooks we used for Dr. Duke’s qualitative research class and I found it so helpful that I purchased my own copy.


16. Mercy, J. A., Kresnow, M., O’Carroll, P. W., Lee, R. K., Powell, K. E., Potter, L. B., . . . Bayer, T. L. (2001). Is suicide contagious? A study of the relation between exposure to suicidal behavior of others and nearly lethal suicide attempts. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(2), 120-127. doi:10.1093/aje/154.2.120

This journal article discussed suicide contagion. It was of interest to me because I wanted to see what the research had to say about the risk of “copycat” suicides, especially as it relates to media exposure to stories about suicide.

17. National Institute of Mental Health. (2013, 05 17).Suicide prevention. Retrieved from

This website provided statistics about suicide in the United States and globally. This information was useful to me because it showed how serious the problem is and that it is a pressing public health issue. It also provided information about prevention tactics and organizations that help individuals who are contemplating suicide, such as local and national organizations and 24-hour hotlines for those in distress.

18. Nicholson, M. (2006). Sport and the media: Managing the nexus (sport management) (1st ed.). London: Routledge. doi:November 11, 2006

This book provides an analysis of the sport media world. I found it helpful because it recounts the historical aspect of sport media and how it developed over time. I am most interested in online sport media and how websites began, what kinds of information they contain, what types of people follow these sites and how this has all changed over time as sport websites have gotten more advanced.

19. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (1994). NFL mortality study. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services


This report was an analysis of the rate of death among professional football players. It found that they have a “normal rate of life expectancy” but the study was done in a relatively young group of men, so results may not be that robust. Along with a higher risk of heart attack, football players are “more likely to die from acts of violence and accidents than the general public… the theory was that these men are likely to be risk-takers and engage in dangerous hobbies and activities.”


20. Phillips, D. P., Lesyna, K., & Paight, D. J. (1992). Suicide and the media. Maris RW, , 499-519.

This journal article discussed the relationship that stories about suicide have on the media. It gives “best practice” recommendations for covering such cases and what things to avoid when the media covers a suicide. It talks about contagion, which is a collection of suicidal “copycats” that try to recreate the act following press coverage of a high profile suicide.

21. Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice SAGE Publications Ltd.

This book explained the process of conducting a qualitative content analysis. It was very helpful in discussing the practical side to qualitative research. The book was particularly strong in its discussion and explanation of coding and the process, which is very valuable to my needs. It explained things very thoroughly but in a very easy to understand manner, which I found accessible to novices and experienced qualitative researchers alike.

22. Schwartz, P. (2010, 03 05). The world’s top sports events. Forbes Magazine, Retrieved from

This magazine article illustrated how important sports are in the United States. It gave me information about finances and what the highest grossing events are. Understanding how essential sports are (and have always been) to our national identity and psyche is a cornerstone for further understanding how important the athletes are, and when they die, their deaths can have wide-reaching impacts on the average population.

23. Schwarz, A., & Brown, C. (2007, February 2, 2007). Dark days follow hard-hitting career in N.F.L. New York Times, pp. A.1.

This newspaper article talked about the issues facing athletes upon retirement from the NFL. Particularly, how they must change their lifestyle to meet financial changes while also dealing with relationship issues, divorce, child custody battles and the feelings of loss that accompany a successful and high profile, high energy career.

24. Smith, A. M., & Milliner, E. K. (1994). Suicide risk in injured athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 29, 337-341.

This journal article discussed the risks factors associated with injured athletes and suicide. The study measured their feelings of depression, hopelessness and negative emotions surrounding their injury. Depression is an important risk factor for mental health issues and may be a risk for suicide as well, so it’s important to see how athletes view their situation and how they adjust (or become maladjusted) to their surroundings following an injury or in the case of some of these NFL athletes, retirement.

25. Statista. (2012, 06 04). Statistics and facts on the NFL. Retrieved from

This website showed facts and statistics about the NFL such as cost of the game, player salaries, television, media and merchandise and financial information about the Super Bowl. Understanding the NFL franchise from a financial and economic standpoint helps me better evaluate the impact that the game has on its fans and viewers.

26. Thomas, D. R. (2003). A general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis.

This article discussed methods for doing a qualitative content analysis. I found the definitions and discussions of coding to be helpful to my research. The article’s section on inductive coding was helpful because it explained the five steps for breaking down the process into manageable steps and a full explanation of each step in order.

27. Ulanday, M., & Crowder, E. (2011, 02 03). Behind the wins and losses: Changing the way mental health is viewed in sports . Retrieved from

This article discusses mental health issues and sports. It talks about how there needs to be a profound change in the way athletes are treated and the avoidance of stigma for mental health issues like depression, suicide—and even how physical injuries can have powerful mental health implications.


28. Ward, S. (2009). Covering suicide: Do journalists exploit tragedy? . Retrieved April 15, 2013, from

This article discussed the ethical considerations for journalists to be aware of when covering suicide cases. Particularly, to not sensationalize or exploit the situation; stick to the verifiable and known facts, and to be sensitive to the grief that the family of the deceased person is experiencing. This was helpful to my research because by knowing the guidelines, I can then have a better way to evaluate the ways in which journalists, reporters, bloggers covered these high profile athlete suicides in their articles.


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